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  • Writer's pictureSutra Institute SIBS

Gender Experiment : The Boy Who Was Raised a Girl

Highlights :

  • David Reimer's case involves a boy who was raised as a girl after a botched circumcision, resulting in severe damage to his genitalia.

  • Dr. John Money, a renowned psychologist, played a significant role in David's life, advocating for a theory of gender neutrality and plasticity.

  • Under Dr. Money's guidance, David was raised as a girl named Brenda and underwent medical interventions to facilitate feminization.

  • However, Brenda struggled with her assigned gender identity, exhibiting masculine behaviors and experiencing discomfort with feminine roles.

  • At the age of 14, Brenda learned the truth about her past and transitioned back to living as a male, adopting the name David.

  • Despite attempts to reverse the medical interventions, David faced ongoing identity struggles and experienced profound psychological and emotional difficulties.

  • Tragically, David Reimer took his own life at the age of 38, highlighting the limitations and potential harm of attempting to mold gender identity solely through socialization.



The case study of David Reimer is a compelling and tragic account of a boy who was raised as a girl after a botched circumcision. David Reimer was born as Bruce Reimer in 1965, along with his twin brother, Brian. At the age of eight months, both brothers underwent a circumcision procedure, but an unfortunate accident occurred during Bruce's surgery, resulting in severe damage to his genitalia.

After the tragic accident during Bruce Reimer's circumcision, which resulted in the loss of his penis, Bruce's parents sought guidance and support from medical professionals. They came across Dr. John Money, who advocated for a theory known as "gender neutrality" or "gender plasticity." The story of David Reimer is deeply intertwined with the role played by Dr. John Money, a renowned psychologist and sexologist known for his work on gender identity and sexual development. Dr. Money's involvement in David's case had a profound impact on the trajectory of David's life. Dr. Money believed that gender identity was primarily a product of socialization and upbringing, rather than being solely determined by biological factors.


Dr. Money proposed a radical approach to address Bruce's gender identity crisis. He recommended that Bruce be raised as a girl, renamed Brenda, and subjected to a series of medical interventions, including surgery to construct a vagina and hormone treatments to facilitate feminization. Dr. Money believed that if Brenda received consistent gender-reinforcing experiences, she would develop a female gender identity and live a fulfilled life as a woman.


Under Dr. Money's guidance, the Reimer family implemented the suggested approach and raised Brenda as a girl. However, the outcome was not as successful as Dr. Money had portrayed. Brenda struggled with her assigned gender identity throughout her childhood. She exhibited masculine behaviors, expressed a strong discomfort with feminine roles, and felt a persistent sense of incongruence with the female gender.


As Brenda grew older, the distress caused by her gender identity conflict deepened. It was at this point that the Reimer family decided to reveal the truth about Brenda's past. At the age of 14, Brenda learned about the accident, the subsequent interventions, and the fact that she had been raised as a girl.


Following the disclosure, Brenda underwent a process of transitioning back to her male gender identity and adopted the name David. The medical interventions to feminize his body were reversed, and he underwent further surgeries to reconstruct his genitalia. However, David continued to struggle with his identity, experiencing profound psychological and emotional difficulties as a result of his upbringing and the distressing experiences as Brenda.


Throughout his life, David battled depression and faced significant challenges in finding a sense of self-acceptance and inner peace. Despite seeking therapy and support, the impact of his past experiences weighed heavily on his mental well-being. Tragically, David Reimer took his own life at the age of 38 in 2004.


The role played by Dr. John Money in David's case has been widely criticized in hindsight. Many experts argue that Dr. Money's theories and interventions were deeply flawed and based on incomplete understanding of gender identity. The case of David Reimer stands as a cautionary tale, highlighting the limitations of attempting to mold a person's gender identity solely through socialization and the potential for significant psychological harm.


The legacy of David Reimer's story and Dr. Money's involvement serves as a reminder of the importance of approaching issues of gender identity with sensitivity, respect, and an understanding of the complexities involved. It continues to inform discussions around gender dysphoria, transgender experiences, and the importance of respecting and supporting individuals in their self-identified gender. The case has fueled important discussions regarding the ethical considerations surrounding medical interventions and the need for supportive and affirming environments for individuals exploring their gender identity. It underscored the limitations of attempting to assign gender solely through nurture, highlighting the importance of an individual's inherent sense of identity.

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